The expository essays are the works that communicate in objective form with clarity and exactitude the result of an investigation realized on the man as individual, the society, the nature and many other areas of the human knowledge.

These works deal with ideas, knowledge and hypotheses based on reality, have a greater degree of depth and to be able to read and understand them it is necessary to have certain prior knowledge regarding the work being read.

The progress of the sciences and technology in the times in which we live, the habits and ways of life of man have changed, has imposed the adoption or creation of terms to designate new objects or phenomena.

The terminology that originated in the research centers, laboratories and experimental fields, gradually spread among the population, until becoming part of their everyday speech. Many words used by physicians are known and used by increasingly broad sectors; Such as: radiography, gynecology, appendicitis, metabolism, analgesic, electrocardiogram, etc.

However, its characteristic is to be a special language specific to specialized fields, to share it with people who have activities or professions in their area. Its specific terms are called technicalities and appear written in specialized dictionaries.


– It is characterized by its desire for universal truth.

– Try to unify the terms internationally, without ideological barriers.

– It seeks to fit the term “object or phenomenon” in the most accurate way.

– It uses denotative, objective language and has a single fixed meaning univocal. Try to avoid ambiguity. Generally does not accept synonyms.

– It does not vary according to the evolution of the language. Eg “atom”, which means indivisible.

– Use symbols, ideograms, figures, abbreviations, etc.

– Its characteristics of syntactic construction, it is the same as ordinary language, its difference is in its meaning (semantic).

The expositive works due to their great variety and according to the degree of difficulty and depth with which they present the knowledge of classify as follows:

• Scientists

• Technicians

• Teaching

• Dissemination or Didactics

• Consultation

• Scientific and Technical Essays: These are specialized works that use terms called technicalities. They treat the subjects with great depth and are directed to specialists in the same field of the knowledge of the author.

• Didactic essays are: Those that have as purpose to educate or teach something and that is designed to facilitate the learning of subject or subject.

• Dissemination Essays: Those that are presented in a simple, clear and understandable way for most people, even if they are not researchers. They are presented in brochures, brochures, magazines, etc.

• The Essays of Consultation are: Those that contain basic information on specific topics or topics.

Among them are dictionaries, encyclopedias, yearbooks, atlases, etc.


1.- Take a look at the total structure of the essay to read. Carefully observe the title, subtitles, subsections, graphics, diagrams, photographs, etc. You will do this to familiarize yourself with the content and focus you manifest.

2.- Motivate yourself to be interested in the subject, asking yourself some questions such as: what are the objectives of the author ?, what will be the thesis that sustain ?, what will be your hypothesis ?, what methods are employed ?, is it reliable?

3.- To observe that from the beginning, the author is not lost in detours and expresses in a main sentence the essential idea or concept that occupies him. It immediately introduces you to the topic.

4.- It is advisable that you note how the contents appear ordered, in sections (a), (b) … etc, or 1., 2., 2.1, 2.2 … so that you do not miss In reading and you can recognize the most important concepts or basic ideas as well as help you summarize or construct synoptic tables for your retention.

5.- The terms, technicalities, symbols, etc. Must be very clear to you, if it is not, it is necessary (essential), that you consult a general or specialized dictionary, or ask for advice to a professor of the subject. The message must be understood accurately and without misunderstanding left to a false personal interpretation.

6.- The language and syntax used by the author is clear and objective. He does not use exclamatory or interrogative sentences that could express his feelings, but rather handle declarative sentences. He also uses non-personal expressions such as: “esteem”, “… and verbs in the past (never in the first person of the present).

7.- The numerical data used in this type of essays are very important, they serve to expand the information of the concepts that communicate. Do not skip them, do not omit them from your analysis, they are not stuffing, same is with the symbols (0.0003 gr., 87%, 2510 million NH3 / etc.). Symbols are the formalized language of science.

8.- You will find abundant abstract names like succession, consolidation, evolution, etc. (The suffix “tion” expresses a process of transformation). Others with suffix “czar” like (metalize), and many more terms of this type.

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